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StevenBlack / hosts


Extending and consolidating hosts files from several well-curated sources like,,,, and potentially others. You can optionally invoke extensions to block additional sites by category. SHALLOW CLONE to avoid cloning too much history.


Build Status

Unified hosts file with base extensions

This repository consolidates several reputable hosts files, and merges them into a unified hosts file with duplicates removed. A variety of tailored hosts files are provided.

List of all hosts file variants

The Non GitHub mirror is the link to use for some hosts file managers like Hostsman for Windows that don't work with Github download links.

Host file recipe Readme Raw hosts Unique domains Non Github mirror
Unified hosts = (adware + malware) Readme link 54,989 link
Unified hosts + fakenews Readme link 55,662 link
Unified hosts + gambling Readme link 56,501 link
Unified hosts + porn Readme link 64,523 link
Unified hosts + social Readme link 56,136 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + gambling Readme link 57,174 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + porn Readme link 65,196 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + social Readme link 56,809 link
Unified hosts + gambling + porn Readme link 66,035 link
Unified hosts + gambling + social Readme link 57,648 link
Unified hosts + porn + social Readme link 65,670 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn Readme link 66,708 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + gambling + social Readme link 58,321 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + porn + social Readme link 66,343 link
Unified hosts + gambling + porn + social Readme link 67,182 link
Unified hosts + fakenews + gambling + porn + social Readme link 67,855 link

Expectation: These unified hosts files should serve all devices, regardless of OS.

Sources of hosts data unified in this variant

Updated hosts files from the following locations are always unified and included:

Host file source Description Home page Raw hosts Update frequency License
Steven Black's ad-hoc list Additional sketch domains as I come across them. link raw occasionally MIT
Malware Domain List Malware Domain List is a non-commercial community project. link raw weekly 'can be used for free by anyone'
add.Dead Dead sites based on content. link raw occasionally GPLv3+
add.Spam Spam sites based on content. link raw occasionally GPLv3+
Dan Pollock – How to make the internet not suck (as much). link raw frequently non-commercial with attribution
MVPS hosts file The purpose of this site is to provide the user with a high quality custom HOSTS file. link raw monthly CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 Blocking with ad server and tracking server hostnames. link raw frequently
Mitchell Krog's - Badd Boyz Hosts Sketchy domains and Bad Referrers from my Nginx and Apache Bad Bot and Spam Referrer Blockers link raw weekly 'non-commercial with attribution'
tyzbit Microsoft tracking domains. A fork of this repo providing additional data. link raw rarely
UncheckyAds Windows installers ads sources sites based on content. link raw occasionally
add.2o7Net 2o7Net tracking sites based on content. link raw occasionally GPLv3+
KADhosts Fraud/adware/scam websites. link raw frequently GPLv3
AdAway AdAway is an open source ad blocker for Android using the hosts file. link raw occasionally CC BY 3.0
add.Risk Risk content sites based on content. link raw occasionally GPLv3+


The unified hosts file is extensible. You manage extensions by curating the extensions/ folder tree. See the fakenews, social, gambling, and porn extension folders.

Generate your own unified hosts file

To run unit tests, in the top level directory, just run:


Note if you are using Python 2, you must first install the mock library:

pip install mock

The script, which is Python 2.7 and Python 3-compatible, will generate a unified hosts file based on the sources in the local data/ subfolder. The script will prompt you whether it should fetch updated versions (from locations defined by the update.json text file in each source's folder). Otherwise, it will use the hosts file that's already there.


Using Python 3:

python3 [--auto] [--replace] [--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn] [--extensions ext1 ext2 ext3]

Using Python 2.7:

python [--auto] [--replace] [--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn] [--extensions ext1 ext2 ext3]

Command line options:

--help, or -h: display help.

--auto, or -a: run the script without prompting. When --auto is invoked,

  • Hosts data sources, including extensions, are updated.
  • No extensions are included by default. Use the --extensions or -e flag to include any you want.
  • Your active hosts file is not replaced unless you include the --replace flag.

--backup, or -b: Make a backup of existing hosts file(s) as you generate over them.

--extensions <ext1> <ext2> <ext3>, or -e <ext1> <ext2> <ext3>: the names of subfolders below the extensions folder containing additional category-specific hosts files to include in the amalgamation. Example: --extensions porn or -e social porn.

--flush-dns-cache, or -f: skip the prompt for flushing the DNS cache.
Only active when --replace is also active.

--ip nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn, or -i nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn: the IP address to use as the target. Default is

--keepdomaincomments, or -k: false (default) or true, keep the comments that appear on the same line as domains. The default is false since some router-based implementations can't handle comments in-line with hosts.

--noupdate, or -n: skip fetching updates from hosts data sources.

--output <subfolder>, or -o <subfolder>: place the generated source file in a subfolder. If the subfolder does not exist, it will be created.

--replace, or -r: trigger replacing your active hosts

--skipstatichosts, or -s: false (default) or true, omit the standard section at the top, containing lines like localhost. This is useful for configuring proximate DNS services on the local network.

--compress, or -c: false (default) or true, Compress the hosts file ignoring non-necessary lines (empty lines and comments) and putting multiple domains in each line. Reducing the number of lines of the hosts file improves the performances under Windows (with DNS Client service enabled).

--minimise, or -m: false (default) or true, like --compress, but puts each domain on a separate line. This is necessary because many implementations of URL blockers that rely on hosts files do not conform to the standard which allows multiple hosts on a single line.

How do I control which sources are unified?

Add one or more additional sources, each in a subfolder of the data/ folder, and specify the url key in its update.json file.

Add one or more optional extensions, which originate from subfolders of the extensions/ folder. Again the url in update.json controls where this extension finds its updates.

Create an optional blacklist file. The contents of this file (containing a listing of additional domains in hosts file format) are appended to the unified hosts file during the update process. A sample blacklist is included, and may be modified as you desire.

  • NOTE: The blacklist is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you git pull this repo from origin in the future.

How do I include my own custom domain mappings?

If you have custom hosts records, place them in file myhosts. The contents of this file are prepended to the unified hosts file during the update process.

The myhosts file is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you git pull this repo from origin in the future.

How do I prevent domains from being included?

The domains you list in the whitelist file are excluded from the final hosts file.

The whitelist uses partial matching. Therefore if you whitelist, that domain and all its subdomains won't be merged into the final hosts file.

The whitelist is not tracked by git, so any changes you make won't be overridden when you git pull this repo from origin in the future.

How can I contribute hosts records?

If you discover sketchy domains you feel should be included here, here are some ways to contribute them.

Option 1: contact one of our hosts sources

The best way to get new domains included is to submit an issue to any of the data providers whose home pages are listed here. This is best because once you submit new domains, they will be curated and updated by the dedicated folks who maintain these sources.

Option 2: add your domains to Steven Black's personal data file

Fork this hosts this repo and add your links to

Then, submit a pull request.

WARNING: this is less desireable than Option 1 because the ongoing curation falls on us and what you've just done is created more work for us.

Option 3: create your own hosts list as a repo on Github

If you're able to curate your own collection of sketchy domains, then curate your own hosts list. Then signal the existance of your remo as a new issue and we may include your new repo into the collection of sources we pull whenever we create new versions.

What is a hosts file?

A hosts file, named hosts (with no file extension), is a plain-text file used by all operating systems to map hostnames to IP addresses.

In most operating systems, the hosts file is preferential to DNS. Therefore if a domain name is resolved by the hosts file, the request never leaves your computer.

Having a smart hosts file goes a long way towards blocking malware, adware, and other irritants.

For example, to nullify requests to some servers, adding these lines to your hosts file will do it:

# block doubleClick's servers
# etc...

We recommend using instead of

Traditionally most host files use, the loopback address, to establish an IP connection to the local machine.

We prefer to use, which is defined as a non-routable meta-address used to designate an invalid, unknown, or non applicable target.

Using is empirically faster, possibly because there's no wait for a timeout resolution. It also does not interfere with a web server that may be running on the local PC.

Why not use just 0 instead of

We tried that. Using 0 doesn't work universally.

Location of your hosts file

To modify your current hosts file, look for it in the following places and modify it with a text editor.

Mac OS X, iOS, Android, Linux: /etc/hosts folder.

Windows: %SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts folder.

Updating hosts file on Windows

On Linux and Mac OS X, you can simply run the Python script, but on Windows, more work is required due to compatibility issues in implementing some of the functionality for Windows. It is preferable to run the batch file as follows:


This file MUST be run in command prompt with administrator privileges in the repository directory. In addition to updating the hosts file, it can also replace the existing hosts file, and reload the DNS cache. It goes without saying that in order for this to work, you must be connected to the internet.

To open a command prompt as administrator in the repository's directory, do the following:

Windows XP: Start -> Run -> cmd

Windows Vista, 7: Start Button -> type cmd -> right-click Command Prompt -> "Run as Administrator"

Windows 8: Start -> Swipe Up -> All Apps -> Windows System -> right-click Command Prompt -> "Run as Administrator"

Windows 10: Start Button -> type cmd -> right-click Command Prompt -> "Run as Administrator"

You can also refer to the "Third-Party Hosts Managers" section for further recommended solutions from third parties.

Reloading hosts file

Your operating system will cache DNS lookups. You can either reboot or run the following commands to manually flush your DNS cache once the new hosts file is in place.


Open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:

ipconfig /flushdns
If you want to use a huge hosts file by merging hphosts (NOT INCLUDED HERE) you need to DISABLE and STOP Dnscache service before you replace hosts file in Windows Systems. You have been warned.

Before flushing the DNS cache, open a command prompt with administrator privileges and run this command:

sc config "Dnscache" start= disabled
sc stop "Dnscache"


Open a Terminal and run with root privileges:

Debian/Ubuntu sudo /etc/rc.d/init.d/nscd restart

Linux with systemd: sudo systemctl restart network.service

Fedora Linux: sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service

Arch Linux/Manjaro with Network Manager: sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager.service

Arch Linux/Manjaro with Wicd: sudo systemctl restart wicd.service

Others: Consult this wikipedia article.

Mac OS X

Open a Terminal and run:

sudo dscacheutil -flushcache;sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

Goals of this unified hosts file

The goals of this repo are to:

  1. automatically combine high-quality lists of hosts,

  2. provide easy extensions,

  3. de-dupe the resultant combined list,

  4. and keep the resultant file reasonably sized.

A high-quality source is defined here as one that is actively curated. A hosts source should be frequently updated by its maintainers with both additions and removals. The larger the hosts file, the higher the level of curation is expected.

For example, the (huge) hosts file from is not included here because it is very large (780,000+ entries) and doesn't currently display a corresponding high level of curation activity.

It is expected that this unified hosts file will serve both desktop and mobile devices under a variety of operating systems.

Third-Party Hosts Managers

  • Unified Hosts AutoUpdate (for Windows): The Unified Hosts AutUpdate package is purpose-built for this unified hosts project as well as in active development by community members. It's sophisticated enough to allow any novice the ability to install and uninstall the blacklist of their choosing to their local hosts file and keep it automatically up to date, while also being minimal enough to be able to be easily placed in a shared network location and deployed across an organization via group policies. And since it is in active development by community members, your bug reports, feature requests, and other feedback are most welcome.

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